Dorman, C.E., R.C. Beardsley, N.A. Dashko, C.A. Friehe, D. Khelif, K. Cho, R. Limeburner, and S.M. Varlamov, Winter marine atmospheric conditions over the Japan Sea, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C12011, doi:10.1029/2001JC001197, 2004. [ Abstract ]
Khelif, D., C.A. Friehe, H. Jonsson, Q. Wang, and K. Rados, Wintertime boundary-layer structure and air-sea interaction over the Japan/East Sea, Deep-Sea Research II, 52, 1525-1545, 2005. [ Abstract ]
Khelif, D. and C.A. Friehe, Surface forcing and boundary-layer structure over the Japan/East Sea during winter cold-air outbreaks, Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA, 15-19 December 2000.
Khelif, D. and C.A. Friehe, Aircraft measurements of boundary-layer structure and air-sea fluxes over the Japan/East Sea during winter cold-air outbreaks, 4th Annual EMS Meeting, Nice, France, 26-30 September 2004.
Khelif, D., C.A. Friehe, and H.H. Jonsson, Boundary-layer structure and air-sea fluxes over the Japan/East Sea during winter cold-air outbreaks, 2002 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, HI, 11-15 February 2002.
Khelif, D., C.A. Friehe, Q. Wang, and H.H. Jonsson, Air-Sea Fluxes and Boundary-Layer Structure Over the Japan/East Sea During Winter Cold Air Outbreaks, The Oceanography Society Biennial Scientific Meeting, Miami Beach Florida, April 2-5, 2001.
Konstantinos, R., Q. Wang, J. Kalogiros, S. Wang, D. Khelif, and C.A. Friehe, Evaluation of marine boundary layer parameterizations in COAMPS using the JES experiment data set, 15th Conference on Boundary Layer and Turbulence, Wageningen, The Netherlands, American Meteorological Society, 2002.
Wang, Q., H. Zuo, I. Kalogiros, C.A. Friehe, D. Khelif, and H. Jonsson, Evaluation of surface flux and boundary layer parameterizations in COAMPS using JES aircraft measurements, Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, CA 15-19 December 2000.
Dorman et al., 2004
Four basic types of synoptic-scale conditions describe the atmospheric structure and variability observed over the Japan Sea during the 1999/2000 winter season: (1) flow of cold Asian air from the northwest, (2) an outbreak of very cold Siberian air from the north and northeast, (3) passage of a weak cyclone over the southern Japan Sea with a cold air outbreak on the backside of the low, and (4) passage of a moderate cyclone along the northwestern side of the Japan Sea. In winter, the Russian coastal mountains and a surface-air temperature inversion typically block cold surface continental air from the Japan Sea. Instead, the adiabatic warming of coastal mountain lee-side air results in small air-sea temperature differences. Occasional outbreaks of very cold Siberian air eliminate the continental surface-based inversion and stability, allowing very cold air to push out over the Japan Sea for 1-3 days. During these outbreaks, the 0°C surface air isotherm extends well southward of 40°N, the surface heat losses in the center of the Japan Sea can exceed 600 W m-2, and sheet clouds cover most of the Japan Sea, with individual roll clouds extending from near the Russian coast to Honshu. During December through February, 1991-2002, these strong cold-air outbreak conditions occur 39% of the time and contribute 43% of the net heat loss from the Japan Sea. The average number of strong cold-air events per winter (November-March) season is 13 (ranging from 5 to 19); the 1999/2000 winter season covered in our measurements was normal.
Khelif et al., 2005
The wintertime meteorology over the Japan/East Sea (JES) is characterized by episodic strong northwesterly winds known as 'cold-air outbreaks' resulting from the incursion of dry and cold air masses from the Eurasian continent. These were found by previous studies (mostly based on indirect methods) to greatly enhance the air-sea interaction and, in particular an area about 150 km in diameter off Vladivostok was identified as the Flux Center. Aircraft in situ measurements of turbulent fluxes and mean meteorological variables were made during the winter 2000. The existence and location of the Flux Center were confirmed although the turbulent sensible and latent-heat fluxes were not as high as previously found due to the air temperature being several degrees warmer. However, the stress was found to be significantly larger as a result of higher wind speeds. The internal boundary layer was found to grow linearly with the square root of offshore fetch, with a growth rate of 2.49 m1/2 for an intense cold-air outbreak and 2.06 m1/2 for a moderate one. A persistent initial decrease in the inversion height was observed at 41.86°N,132.6°E and may be attributable to the fanning out of the jet flow out of the Vladivostok gap as it expands onto the open ocean. The radiometric skin sea-surface temperature in the Flux Center exhibited large variability in the 0-4°C range and was positively correlated with the total turbulent (latent+sensible) heat loss. Meteorological variables and surface fluxes results from Naval Research Laboratory Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) model compared reasonably, while the predictions of the internal boundary layer height were markedly lower than the observations.