Published Papers

Shcherbina, A.Y., L.D. Talley, E. Firing, and P. Hacker, Near-surface frontal zone trapping and deep upward propagation of internal wave energy in the Japan/East Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 900-912, 2003.  [ Abstract ]

Talley, L.D., V. Lobanov, V. Ponomarev, A. Salyuk, P. Tishchenko, I. Zhabin, and S. Riser, Deep convection and brine injection in the Japan Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 10.1029/2002GL016451, 2003.  [ Abstract ]

Talley, L.D., D.-H. Min, V.B. Lobanov, V.A. Luchin, V.I. Ponomarev, A.N. Salyuk, A.Y. Shcherbina, P.Y. Tishchenko, and I. Zhabin, Japan/East Sea water masses and their relation to the sea's circulation, Oceanography, 19, 32-49.  [ Abstract ]

Talley, L.D., P. Tishchenko, V. Luchin, A. Nedashkovskiy, S. Sagalaev, D.-J. Kang, M. Warner, and D.-H. Min, Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999, Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 277-348, 2004.  [ Abstract ]

Technical Reports

Cruise Report: Hydrographic survey on R/V Revelle HNR07, 24 June 1999–17 July 1999 (November 1999; CTD updated April 2006).

Cruise Report: Hydrographic survey on R/V Professor Khromov KH36, 22 July 1999–13 August 1999 (September 1999; updated April 2006).

Cruise Report: Hydrographic survey on R/V Professor Khromov KH38, 28 February 2000–17 March 2000


Shcherbina et al., 2003
The full-depth current structure in the Japan/East Sea was investigated using direct velocity measurements performed with lowered and shipboard acoustic current Doppler profilers. Rotary spectral analysis was used to investigate the three-dimensional energy distribution as well as wave polarization with respect to vertical wavenumbers, yielding information about the net energy propagation direction. Highly energetic near-inertial downward-propagating waves were found in localized patches along the southern edge of the subpolar front. Between 500- and 2500-m depth, the basin average energy propagation was found to be upward, with the maximum of relative difference between upward- and downward-propagating energy lying at about 1500-m depth. This difference was most pronounced in the southeastern part of the basin.

Talley et al., 2003
Direct water mass renewal through convection deeper than 1000 m and the independent process of dense water production through brine rejection during sea ice formation occur at only a limited number of sites globally. Our late winter observations in 2000 and 2001 show that the Japan (East) Sea is a part of both exclusive groups. Japan Sea deep convection apparently occurs every winter, but massive renewal of bottom waters through brine rejection had not occurred for many decades prior to the extremely cold winter of 2001. The sites for both renewal mechanisms are south of Vladivostok, in the path of cold continental air outbreaks.

Talley et al., 2006
The Japan/East Sea is well ventilated to the bottom, through processes of subduction, open ocean convection, and brine rejection from sea ice production. The Japan/East Sea has a relatively short overturning time scale, and thus its deep and bottom water properties are in flux, tied to changing surface conditions with a delay of only decades. Concerns about possible anoxia in the abyss within a century or two may be ill-founded based on observations of new bottom water production. On the other hand, since sea ice is the source of deep and bottom water in the Japan/ East Sea, changes in climate that greatly reduce or eliminate sea ice in the Japan/East Sea could have a profound impact on its abyssal waters.

The impact of the Japan/East Sea processes on North Pacific properties is indirect. The Tsushima Warm Current draws subtropical North Pacific water northward, where it is transformed by air-sea fluxes; transformed surface water exits at Tsugaru Strait, several hundreds of kilometers north of the Kuroshio. Relatively saline waters are also advected farther northward to Soya Strait, to enter the Okhotsk Sea. In both locations, the Japan/East Sea waters are more saline than the ambient waters, and cold enough to affect the properties of North Pacific Intermediate Water, which is the densest water formed in the open North Pacific. The freshening and cooling processes within the Japan/East Sea and overall budgets that affect the outflow properties through these shallow straits thus impact overturning of the North Pacific.

Talley et al., 2004
Hydrographic properties from CTD and discrete bottle sample profiles covering the Japan (East) Sea in summer, 1999, are presented in vertical sections, maps at standard depths, maps on isopycnal surfaces, and as property-property distributions. This data set covers most of the Sea with the exception of the western boundary region and northern Tatar Strait, and includes nutrients, pH, alkalinity, and chlorofluorocarbons, as well as the usual temperature, salinity, and oxygen observations.